The Beginnings
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The Human Genome.

The fool has said in his heart that there is no God:  Know this first that there will come in the last days, scoffers, walking after there own lustFor this they are willingly ignorant that by the Word of God the heavens were created and the earth stood out of the water and in the water. (See 2nd Peter 3 verse 1 thru 7.)

Indeed, the marvelous design of all living things, reveals that there is an Intelligent Designer that is far beyond the understanding of the collective intelligent of all humans, let alone the unbelieving fool.  This human body is far more intricate in its design, than even the geneticist originally believed.  Human understanding of the genetics of mankind is growing within a consensus of scientific opinions, but many of the opinions are stubbornly out of touch with the Truth:  For the Truth is tossed away, in man's contrived teachings on the unknown inflation of a single cell into their contrived evolutionary origin of man.  It's remarkable that the intelligence of a single cell, outstrips the intelligence of mankind, who are all individually made up of trillions of intelligent cells. The writings of the one, who resides in this human body of trillions of intelligent cells, in his ignorance of all things, relies on the observations of others that each, also reside in the trillions of intelligent cells that make, up their body of indisputable evidence that declares: God in the beginning, created all things. 

The evidence of all things have not changed much since I was in school 50 plus years ago.  I had a physiology and embryology teacher, Dr Johnson, who at the time was working on his PhD in Physiology at the University of Indiana.  This bright man said the following words to his class that stands today in truth: "We don't know why it works the way that it does, but we sure are happy that it works, and works well the way that it does".  Although man can create new words in an attempt to define the expansion of his acquired knowledge, nevertheless man can not create the essence of life out of his own finite knowledge.  Nay, it takes a designer of unsurpassing knowledge and power that brings to life the unexplainable intricacies of the minuteness of the inner workings of the miracle of life that any body possesses.  The fool is a macro man that proclaims his superior knowledge from his own gross observation of only what he can see with his physical eyes.  The fool has no concept of how his mind was able to perceive what his miraculous eyes beheld and then transforming the light-sensing cells from the retinas into electrical signals from the eyes neuronal cells of rods and cones through the optic nerve  to the visual cortex and back to the frontal lobes of the brain to process the information for good or evil.

Brain And Eye Anatomy, Artwork Photograph by Science Photo ...

In the end, Almighty God the Creator of all things will rightly be glorified. 

The Prophet Daniel, in his period of time, saw many things in the future that would bring great trouble in the end times, the likes of which could not be comprehended.  Then the troubled Daniel was commanded by the Spirit of God to close and end the words of the book: For when the end shall come, many shall be able to move about quickly, for knowledge would have increased.  (See Daniel 12 verse 4.)

The following is an observation primer in the genetics of man only, and does not go beyond a basic understandings, but stays within the necessary scope of these writings that are intended to magnify the Infinite Creator of the universe.  To begin our simple foray into man's acquired knowledge of observable genetics, we start with the macromolecular structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which is made up of four base chemical structures that are called nucleotides.  The names of the four nucleotides are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine, which all consist of essential carbon rings.  These four nucleotide bases are chemically bound with hydrogen atoms and always in pairs of

('A' = adenine linked with two hydrogen atoms to 'T' = thymine),

Purine           Pyrimidine  

and ('C' = cytosine' linked with three hydrogen atoms to 'G' = guanine ). 

Pyrimidine          Purine

The complete image is available at Wikimedia Commons.

These two paired nucleotide structures are chemically bonded to two sugar (ribose) phosphate backbone strands that run in opposite directions to each other.  The sequential pattern of the nucleotides in each separate strand of DNA, produces what we call genes. 

Image courtesy of the National Human Genome Research Institution

From the very beginning of life, all creative cellular functions in the organism are through the chemical instructions that are emitted from the multitude of genes within the DNA blueprint of life.  By definition: "A gene is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity.  It is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position (locus) on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product, i.e., a protein or RNA molecule". 

The size of a specific gene is variable depending on the number of base pairs it takes to begin the chemistry, called a promoter, and the end of production, called a terminator.  That specific gene when stimulated with its language will produce one or more sequences of Messenger RNA (mRNA) that will see to the making of proteins that will eventuate into a trait.  The beginning promoter to the ending terminator, designates the gene, and would be known as the 'locus' of the gene.  The genes encoded instructions are for the production of the building blocks of hundreds of thousands of unique proteins with their chemical functions, which make for the individual living structures of the various life forms on planet earth.  The DNA blueprint of the individual human, with its parental mutations, remains essentially the same in every cell of the individual's body.  However, during the last 10 years the geneticist have discovered that the genes are controlled and set in motion by their Epigenomes.  Gene mutations that are known to cause a disease, may have an epigenome that is capable of turning off the gene's mutant abnormalities.  We will look at the genius of the Epigenome in a moment.

A Model of a double stranded DNA helix molecule.

Not every cell in the human body contains DNA, although every cell in its beginning development had a nucleus that contained DNA and its instructions.  In the maturation process of some of the cells, they lose their nucleus with its DNA.  Mature red blood cells loose their nucleus with its DNA, so that in design they are able to carry more oxygen, and with its reduction in size it can transverse the micro-circulation through the capillaries and venules.   Also there are the keratinized cells, such as in the surface skin, hair, and nails.  These are dead cells, having lost their nucleus with its life force of DNA. The rest of the trillions of cells in the human body have 23 double stranded pairs of chromosomes in their nucleus' that make up the double stranded helix of human DNA.  So then the normal total number of chromosomes in humans is 46. 

As we continue with our primer you should become a little more diverse in your appreciation for the miracle of life.  The reader's understanding should expand even further when the continuing into the next chapter and discover the intelligent Epigenome that conducts the business of the DNA.  The gold links will help you to see the miracle of life as it begins in the cellular genesis within the developing gonads of human offspring that eventuates with spermatogenesis in the male, and oogenesis in the female.  Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis are processes in the multiplication, growth and maturation production of gametes.  The gametes are reproductive cells that in the male are a multitude of mature sperm, and in the female a single mature ovum. 

Interphase  speaks of a time of cell preparation with growth and then chromosome reproduction that will proceed with stages of mitotic or meiotic cell divisions.  In gamete production, the cell preparation of growth enlargement and replication of chromosomes will lead to both of the mitotic phases and then the meiotic phase.

Mitosis speaks of a miraculous process of cell division, where the one parent cell becomes two cells.  In Interphase, the nucleus of the enlarged parent cell replicates its self, so that the number of chromosomes is doubled, and then in mitosis divides into an identical daughter nuclei, containing the same number of chromosomes as the original parent nucleus.  There are now two identical cells; and so the miraculous process of mitotic division would continue as determined by the original source of life. In humans the normal chromosome count is made up of two sets of 23 chromosomes, with one set of 23 from dad and the other set of 23 from mom, totaling 46 chromosomes

Meiosis speaks of a miraculous process of cell division that will produce the gametes of the species, that is the sperm and ovum of the reproduction of life.   In this process of human meiosis, the one parent cell with its 46 chromosomes (diploid) undergoes a exchange of genetic information that will give birth to absolutely unique daughter cells with half or 23 chromosomes (haploid) of the original parent cell nucleus.

Meiosis has two stages Meiosis I and Meiosis II with four phases in each stage with identical names: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase, and for your memory PMATx2.  Also the phases in mitosis are given the same name cell cycles.

The spermatogonium goes through mitosis to replicate  the one cell with its nuclear DNA into two identical cells, spermatogonia Ad and spermatogonia Ap.  Spermatogonia Ad to the right replenishes the stores with additional spermatogonium in
seminiferous tubules of the testis, while the one spermatogonia Ap through meiosis 1 and 2 will eventuate into 4 gamete sperm cells. The maturation process of the sperm continues while being stored in the epididymis of the testicle.










Kimball's Biology Pages John W. Kimball,
distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

In contrast to the ongoing cycle of the male gamete production in spermatogenesis, the female in oogenesis, will produce all of her oocytes (immature eggs) within the follicular tissues of the developing ovaries prior to her birth.  After her birth no more oocytes will be produced in her ovaries.  During the the fifth week of gestation there are as many as 600,000 immature oocytes produced, and by the 6th week, as many as 7,000,000 oocytes are replicated.   The immature oocytes are conceived within follicular tissues (primordial follicles) that support the oocytes by surrounding the oocyte with squamous cells, called granulosa cell.  The developing follicles enclose the immature oocytes, but are separate in function from the oocyte, but nevertheless in pregnancy are linked to them.

At birth, the two ovaries of the female child have in suspension perhaps a million immature eggs (oocytes), with the prior multitude of oocytes having atrophied into none functioning cell structures. When puberty first begins the female will ovulate her first egg, and then in the course of her monthly cycles, there is the possibility of 500 more mature eggs being released, until her child bearing potential ends with the exhaustion of the eggs resulting in menopause.  Each month the ovaries take turns in releasing an egg.  The single egg, is more properly called an ovum, and has 23 reconstituted haploid chromosomes of the mother's DNA. 

Recap synopsis from the Wikipedia ### The primary role of the follicle is oocyte support. From birth, the ovaries of the human female contains a number of immature, primordial follicles. These follicles each contain a similarly immature primary oocyte. After puberty and commencing with the first menstruation, a clutch of follicles begins folliculogenesis, entering a growth pattern that will end in death or in ovulation (the process where the oocyte leaves the follicle).


Modified Kimball's Biology Pages John W. Kimball,
distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0

With human coitus, the respective gametes will infuse with each other to become a new miracle of life. In this miraculous event of natural human conception, there are no less than one hundred million to four hundred million individual spermatogonia or the seeds of man, with each one, male or female, racing to unite with a solitary ovum of the woman to become a solitary person.  With the fertilization of the ovum with the sperm, the start of new life would have received half of the chromosomes from the mother's egg or ovum, which has 22 unpaired chromosomes, called autosomes, and 1 unpaired X female sex chromosome.  The other half of the chromosomes are from the father's sperm cell, which also has 22 unpaired chromosomes and 1 unpaired sex chromosome, either a male X sperm or female Y sperm.   

The sex of a child, is always determined by the father's sperm, because the mother's egg always carries within it only the female gender pattern of the female X sex chromosome.  The father's individual sperm has within its packet, either one female X sex chromosome, producing a female child XX, or the individual sperm has one male Y sex chromosome, producing a male child XY.  

So then the sperm with the female X sex chromosome from the father, plus the female X sex chromosome from the ovum of the mother, produces the XX female child's combined DNA, containing a  natural total of 46 chromosomes.  While the sperm with the male Y chromosome from the father, plus the female X chromosome from the ovum of the mother, produces the XY male child's DNA, containing a  natural total of 46 chromosomes. With the crossing over of genetic alleles in the production of the gametes of the parents, the uniqueness of the child to be born, is astronomical.  The uniqueness is in the order of (86)2 or 64 trillion possibilities. 

To proceed to the next chapter please click on  Epigenome.


Mystery Menu

Robert Glenn Pratten